This report by the African Centre for Migration & Society, University of the Witwatersrand and Samuel Hall supports the work of Open Society Foundations to promote people’s safe and unencumbered movement across international borders. The research started with a question: what factors threaten the fulfilment of migrants’ rights, and what factors support these? The research team embarked on a multi-region study analysing migration policy and practices in Central, East and Southern Africa. This report reviews findings at the East African sub-regional level, at a time of growing attention to fostering mobility and mobility’s gain for protection and development.
Within the East African Community (EAC), the report focuses on Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda. Although the fieldwork primarily focused at two sites each in two countries (Kenya and Tanzania), the synthetic report includes information and face-to-face interviews with key stakeholders from all four countries.
Our report ”Driven to Leave” questions the efficacy of traditional development investments that seek to deter migration from countries lacking basic rule of law and security; and questions the impact of job training and skills building on migration intentions. It is based on 12,200 surveys conducted from 2014-17 in Afghanistan and Somalia, and in-depth interviews with Somalis and Afghans at home and in Italy and Greece from 2017.
Commissioned by The Regional Durable Solutions Secretariat (ReDSS), and Conducted by Samuel Hall, this report provides recommendations on how to improve local integration and self-reliance programming. The study assessed the level of local integration in Gambela (Gambela city and Pugnido Camp) and Somali regions (Jigjiga and Kebribeyah Camp) for refugees who have lived in Ethiopia for 20 years or more by comparing their situation to the host communities, as per Pledge 6 commitment.
In 2017, as part of the British Council’s Next Generation series, Samuel Hall conducted a rigorous and systematic literature review on the topic of ‘Youth Employment in Kenya’, funded by DFID. Following DFID’s ‘strength of evidence’ approach, the landscape of available literature on the topic was reviewed, assessed and analysed, and existing knowledge and data gaps were identified – with a total of 432 documents reviewed and 143 referenced in the study. Based on the findings of the study, Samuel Hall provided the British Council and other interested stakeholders with a comprehensive overview of the current employment challenges and opportunities for Kenya’s 10 million youth. In addition to clear and evidence-based policy recommendations, the final report also featured precise suggestions for future research endeavours, which informed subsequent actions of the Next Generation project in Kenya.
This report investigates intra-labour migration in the East African Community (EAC) through a literature review of existing evidence. The aim of this study, commissioned by DFID and Sida and conducted by Samuel Hall, Maastricht University and the University of Oxford, is to generate new evidence to support government and development interventions aimed at eliminating poverty and reducing vulnerabilities in the EAC by exploring the potential of labour migration across five countries: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda.
Doing Business in Afghanistan 2017 is the first report of the subnational Doing Business series in Afghanistan. It measures business regulations and their enforcement in 5 provinces. The provinces are compared against each other, and with 189 other economies worldwide.
This Scoping Study for a Renewable Energy Skills Development PPDP Facility seeks to understand how a PPDP (Public Private Development Partnership) training initiative can successfully bridge the renewable energy skills gap in the Somali power sector while ensuring a sustainable impact on the local population.
This report provides an evidence-based strategy for increasing employment opportunities and skills development for protracted and recent refugees in Kakuma refugee camp. By focusing on economic integration and capacity development, it directly contributes to the durable and transitional solutions agenda.
The site of one of the most protracted refugee situations in the world, Kakuma refugee camp is home to over 177 thousand refugees from various countries such as South Sudan, Somalia and Ethiopia.
IOM Tajikistan has been active in the border region between Afghan Badakhshan and Tajik GBAO through its Tajik–Afghan Border Security and Community Stabilization (BSCS) programme, whose first phase came to a close in March 2015. One key finding of its final evaluation was that an important driver of instability in the region was the lack of livelihood opportunities. Phase II will thus focus on the border’s potential as a site of economic opportunity. In October 2015, Samuel Hall was contracted by IOM Tajikistan to conduct a study on cross-border economic opportunities in the Badakhshan–GBAO region. The purpose of this assignment was to identify the needs and the economic potential in border communities on both sides, and point out initiatives with the potential to be scaled up to the benefit of local residents. The research questions addressed the potential of cross-border markets and possible synergies in cross-border labor market supply and demand. It considered existing initiatives with an eye to avoiding duplication of efforts.
Connected by the ancient Silk Road, the remote border region between Afghanistan (Badakhshan) and Tajikistan (GBAO) was once a place of prosperous exchange. Today the communities living on “the roof of the world” face a number of challenges common across the border: security concerns, poverty and lack of employment opportunities.
This study was commissioned by GIZ with the aim of drawing a picture of the needs and demands of the private sector in the Afghan mining industry. The objective of this nation-wide consultation was to a) provide a thorough picture of the specific skills demanded by the Afghan mining sector through the establishment of job-specific competency profiles; and b) based on the information gained through the first phase of the research, design workshops in close collaboration with private sector actors in order to improve the practical skillset of Afghan students in mining-related fields.
The State of Afghan Cities report provides the first-ever assessment of the conditions in all of Afghanistan’s 34 Provincial Capitals that are home to over 8 million people. It shows that Afghan cities are a driving force of social and economic development, state-building and peace-building, yet their full potential has been constrained by the absence of an effective urban policy and regulatory framework, insufficient and poorly coordinated investment, and weak municipal governance and land management. Samuel Hall contributed its expertise to the urban economy analysis section of the report.
This research is the first comprehensive study of Somaliland and Puntland’s youth migration and its linkages to employment. The research maps economic drivers of migration, youth livelihood opportunities, and interventions to support youth and local markets – unlocking solutions for youth employment in Somaliland and Puntland inclusive of the public and private sectors.
To help the Government of Afghanistan (Ministry of Commerce and Industry) and its partners promote ambitious economic and employment generation schemes in the country, this report investigates the economic context for Special Economic Zones (SEZs) in Afghanistan across seven regions in the country: Kabul, Balkh, Nangarhar, Paktia, Kunduz, Kandahar, and Herat. SEZs are geographical areas within a country, usually cities, which concentrate infrastructure requirements for business; create a hub of suppliers, distributors, and product markets for industry; often enjoy more liberal commercial laws and regulations, lower tariffs than the rest of the country to attract both local and international investors. Such zones can be found in China, India, and Singapore, where they are widely considered successful in their aims.
Value Chain and Rapid Market Assessment – Policy Brief
Under the context of protracted conflict, geo-political upheaval and severe drought, traditional markets have been disrupted and critical infrastructure has been eroded. The newly created Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) has outlined economic growth as a central policy but has had little opportunity to invest in it. However local markets are still suffering from external shocks such as drought and conflict affecting informal agricultural and rural economy, mass internal displacement towards rapid urbanization and repatriation programs for refugees in neighbouring countries. This document provides highlights from a market and value chain research conducted by Samuel Hall Consulting for the International labour Organisation (ILO) in 2014 in Baidoa and Beletweyne districts in Somalia.
Part of a peace and conflict assessment, a workshop between all relevant GIZ departments enabled Samuel Hall to present initial assessment findings and dig deeper into the issues faced by donors with regards to teaching and the mining sector in Afghanistan.
This report provides an evidence-based strategy for increasing employment opportunities and skills training for youths, women and IDPs in Baidoa and Beletweyne districts in Somalia. This is both a timely and necessary exercise as the Federal Government of Somalia continues to implement development and rehabilitation projects based on the five Peacebuilding and Security Goals (PSGs) of the New Deal.
In a challenging Afghan environment, Cash Transfer Programmes (CTPs) have proven to be an efficient, safe, and flexible assistance tool that has delivered all or part of a response: i) in emergency or development situations; ii) across a large spectrum of activities (livelihoods, WASH, food security), and iii) in diverse geographic locations (urban and rural communities). To fuel the on-going debate, we listed for OCHA key findings and lessons learned from Samuel Hall’s most recent publications.
Our team presented in Bamyan initial findings of the report covering the baseline evaluation of the Central Highlands Programme focused on assisting rural communities in Central Afghanistan through the support of GERES, Madera and Solidarités, three French NGOs funded by the AFD.