This research was led by the Regional Durable Solutions Secretariat (ReDSS) in partnership with the EU RE-INTEG, Durable Solutions Programme and Danwadaag Solutions Consortia, with financial support from ECHO, Danida and DFID. The research was conducted by Samuel Hall and the Somali Disaster Resilience Institute (SDRI). The report presents a progress review and update on durable solutions programming in displacement-affected communities in three urban centres in Somalia: Mogadishu, Baidoa and Kismayo.
Contrary to many popular perceptions, Dadaab is an area of opportunity with existing strengths that can be harnessed. This market systems analysis identifies these strengths as well as areas to build further, and provides the foundation for building opportunities to strengthen job creation and linkages between host and refugee communities as well as with private sector employers in Garissa county as well as with the capital. Two value chains in particular are highlighted, one within the agriculture sector, the other within the waste management sector.
This policy brief explores the situation faced by returnees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Afghanistan, calling for a collective approach across the humanitarian-developmentpeace nexus. Displaced persons in Afghanistan face ever-worsening situations as three studies presented in this policy brief highlight: 1) Returnees and IDPs suffer from worsening displacement-related protection needs; 2) the support to mass number of recent returnees in Jalalabad remains short-term and focused on lifesaving needs; and 3) the lack of a systemic response to services and market integration all point to a lacking conducive and responsive environment for durable solutions.
This paper was commissioned by the Global Education Monitoring Report as background information to assist in drafting the 2019 GEM Report, Migration, displacement and education: Building bridges, not walls, accessible here.
This report by the African Centre for Migration & Society, University of the Witwatersrand and Samuel Hall supports the work of Open Society Foundations to promote people’s safe and unencumbered movement across international borders. The research started with a question: what factors threaten the fulfilment of migrants’ rights, and what factors support these? The research team embarked on a multi-region study analysing migration policy and practices in Central, East and Southern Africa. This report reviews findings at the East African sub-regional level, at a time of growing attention to fostering mobility and mobility’s gain for protection and development.
Within the East African Community (EAC), the report focuses on Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda. Although the fieldwork primarily focused at two sites each in two countries (Kenya and Tanzania), the synthetic report includes information and face-to-face interviews with key stakeholders from all four countries.
This report assesses the impact on children of being returned from Europe to Afghanistan. Through interviews with individual children, their parents or guardians, and with governmental and non-governmental actors, it builds a picture of children’s material, physical, legal and psychosocial safety during the returns process. Returns processes implemented by EU member states and Norway are examined to analyse where European governments are failing to provide appropriate support.
Our report ”Driven to Leave” questions the efficacy of traditional development investments that seek to deter migration from countries lacking basic rule of law and security; and questions the impact of job training and skills building on migration intentions. It is based on 12,200 surveys conducted from 2014-17 in Afghanistan and Somalia, and in-depth interviews with Somalis and Afghans at home and in Italy and Greece from 2017.
This study seeks to provide an analysis of the current returns to Syria. The ongoing armed conflict in Syria has displaced millions of people inside and outside the country sparking an international humanitarian crisis. Since 2011, over 6 million Syrians have sought asylum outside Syria’s borders, and an additional 6.5 million people displaced internally. There is no clear picture of the number or conditions in places of return. This research contributes to filling this gap.
Returns to Syria should neither be promoted nor facilitated, as the focus must remain on investing in the preservation, and expansion, of protection space in host countries.
The study focuses on assessing migrant vulnerabilities, protection needs and exposure to exploitation
before migration, during their transit and upon arrival through a qualitative research based on migrants’
experiences of irregular migration to Canada, with a focus on Afghan and Syrian migrants.
Diaspora organisations (DOs) are newly recognised actors in the humanitarian space. DOs respond to crises such as those in Syria, Somalia, and Nigeria, which have shown the limitations of the traditional humanitarian sector. Their contributions to emergency response are under-studied and, as our research shows, often misunderstood due to a gap in knowledge about their work. This report contributes to filling this gap. It sets out to understand how DOs contribute to strengthening humanitarian response in crisis settings. We explore opportunities to work with DOs in humanitarian action through six case studies of DOs operating in Somalia and Syria. Fieldwork was conducted in seven remote sites of humanitarian intervention, including in Nigeria, where DO actions are still limited. A context analysis for Nigeria provides an entry point into understanding the potential for DOs to contribute in the northeastern region.
Commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, Mercy Corps and Samuel Hall undertook data analysis in and primary data collection in Afghanistan, Somalia, Greece and Italy to understand the commonalities and differences in the decision-making process – whether to migrate or to stay – amongst youth in conflict-affected settings. This research fills identified knowledge caps on the decision-making process of youth migrants and the influence of interventions on these intentions. This research adds a comparative dimension to the understanding of mixed migration dynamics in contexts such as Afghanistan and Somalia and allows for improved support for youth in these environments.
The study focuses on assessing migrant vulnerabilities, protection needs and exposure to exploitation before migration, during their transit and upon arrival through a qualitative research based on migrants’ experiences of irregular migration to Canada – with a focus on Afghan and Syrian migrants.
The objectives of this study are to map out of the characteristics of the current and developing smuggling networks that have Canada as a final destination and assess the vulnerabilities and exploitation that migrants are exposed to during their journeys.
Commissioned by The Regional Durable Solutions Secretariat (ReDSS), and Conducted by Samuel Hall, this report provides recommendations on how to improve local integration and self-reliance programming. The study assessed the level of local integration in Gambela (Gambela city and Pugnido Camp) and Somali regions (Jigjiga and Kebribeyah Camp) for refugees who have lived in Ethiopia for 20 years or more by comparing their situation to the host communities, as per Pledge 6 commitment.
This report – based on research from Samuel Hall and commissioned by the Norwegian Refugee Council and the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre – follows on from a 2012 study of displacement patterns and the challenges inherent in protecting internally displaced people (IDPs) in Afghanistan. This new and updated analysis focuses on assessing the causes of prolonged and multiple displacement and seeks to present the key protection challenges still confronting displacement-affected Afghans today. Combining the voices of IDPs with analysis of primary data collected from IDPs and secondarily displaced returning refugees across Afghanistan, the study reveals major gaps in access to key humanitarian services as well as a set of persistent and entrenched vulnerabilities that blight the lives of IDPs.
The report, prepared and conducted by the Samuel Hall think tank under the IOM DFID-funded MEASURE Project, outlines recommendations to support sustainable reintegration of migrants who return to their home countries in the framework of AVRR programmes.
The data presented in this case study is drawn from 2017 research on IDPs’ protection needs carried out by Samuel Hall for the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC). A large quantitative survey was conducted in Herat, Kabul, Kandahar, Kunduz and Nangarhar provinces, where data was collected in rural, peri-urban and urban areas. Of 2,580 respondents, 1,161 were returnee-IDPs and 1,420 other IDPs. The sample data is neither representative nor random, but combined with focus group discussions with displaced people and other community members, the research captures their narratives, protection needs and experiences.
In 2017, Samuel Hall conducted a study on key issues, actors, and tools in the current global landscape of Family Tracing & Reunification (FTR), commissioned by IKEA Foundation. Based on an extensive and rigorous literature review and 22 additional key informant interviews with FTR providers and experts worldwide, the study focused on the current landscape of FTR tools and methods, their respective actors and key challenges to accessing and providing the best FTR support services possible.
FTR was understood in this study as a holistic process, covering all formal, informal, individual and institutionalised efforts to overcome separation of family members; ranging from the separating event until reintegration. The findings and recommendations of the study are designed to enable the Foundation and other engaged donors to create evidence-based interventions intended to reshape the current FTR landscape, including: 1) Reshaping and optimising the FTR process and its tools; 2) Reshaping and optimising the FTR actor landscape; 3) Reshaping the legal landscape to allow separated persons to access reunification; and 4) Supporting separated persons’ futures through technology.
This report investigates intra-labour migration in the East African Community (EAC) through a literature review of existing evidence. The aim of this study, commissioned by DFID and Sida and conducted by Samuel Hall, Maastricht University and the University of Oxford, is to generate new evidence to support government and development interventions aimed at eliminating poverty and reducing vulnerabilities in the EAC by exploring the potential of labour migration across five countries: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda.
Conflict, disasters, and other humanitarian emergencies have broad reaching consequences, but often lost in emergency responses are the psychosocial impacts of these events. Yet such crises can have a detrimental effect on psychosocial wellness, as demonstrated by Samuel Hall research with urban youth in Kabul. 71 per cent of youth interviewed by Samuel Hall had experienced a traumatic event, with many reporting symptoms associated with trauma. Our data shows that the mental health of these youth should absolutely be considered a priority – the time for action is now.
Around 5,000 Eritreans leave their country every month. They go for a range of reasons, including compulsory National Service, political persecution, and a restricted economy that offers few opportunities.
Many travel directly to neighbouring Ethiopia, where there is an open-asylum policy for refugees, including an extensive camp-based system of protection, and a variety of interventions designed to both support people’s livelihoods and deter irregular secondary migration. But despite this humanitarian and development assistance, for many people, their journey doesn’t end in Ethiopia.
Samuel Hall supported ODI in the development of this working paper that sets out to better understand whether, by providing alternative options, it is possible for policy-makers to prevent or reduce irregular migration from countries- and regions-of-origin. It looks at two measures in particular: in-country livelihood support, such as vocational trainings and loans, and refugee resettlement programming. Findings draw on qualitative interviews with Eritreans in both the northern province of Tigray as well as the country’s capital, Addis Ababa.
The paper finds that Ethiopia is a vital country of asylum, offering the prospect of freedom and security. However, despite better prospects relative to Eritrea, many people continue to find it difficult to pursue decent, fulfilling and relevant livelihoods.
Evidence shows that in-country livelihood support is helping people get by and meet basic survival needs. But potential impacts are being undermined by the fact that refugees living in Ethiopia are denied the right to work.
Alongside this, refugee resettlement has the effect of slowing down irregular migration, particularly as it provides people with an opportunity to move onwards safely and legally. However, this effect appears to weaken over time as people’s trust in the formal system declines, resulting in a gradual deflection into irregularity.
In addition, readers can access a scrolling webpage, featuring additional stories, photographs, infographics and a short documentary.