The first Migration Profile for Afghanistan is a tool for enhancing policy coherence, evidence-based policymaking and the mainstreaming of migration into development planning. Due to security challenges and limited institutional capacities in data collection, a lack of reliable migration data poses challenges to policymakers in Afghanistan to develop appropriate migration policies and relevant migration programmes.
It provides detailed information on the migration patterns in Afghanistan with a focus on circular migration and remittances.
Today refugee movements no longer characterize the primary source of Afghan migration. Migration in search of livelihoods is currently the primary reason for migration and this occurs through rural–urban migration in Afghanistan or circular migration patterns as Afghans cross into Pakistan and/or the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The Migration Profile is structured in five main parts: Part A: Afghanistan – A Country in Context, Part B: Migration Trends and Migration Characteristics, Part C: Impacts of Migration, Part D: Migration Governance, Part E: Key Findings, Policy Implications and Recommendations.
This report was authored by the Norwegian Refugee Council with research conducted by Samuel Hall and NRC. The objective of the study is to summarise trends from NRC’s legal case analysis and identify the challenges faced by displaced women in accessing their housing, land and property (HLP) rights. This study offers evidence and guidance for policymakers and NRC to help eliminate – not just outcomes – of gender inequality.
Samuel Hall completed its first assessment in Somalia for the Somalia Return Consortium composed of DRC, FAO, INTERSOS, IOM, Islamic Relief, Mercy Corps, NRC, UNHCR and WFP. In a press release on Relief Web, UNHCR launched the Executive Summary of the report, with a foreword from the Country Representative of UNHCR Somalia – Alessandra Morelli. The report assesses the achievements and challenges of the IDP Voluntary Return Programme currently being implemented in Somalia. The full report will be released in July.
This report highlights the achievements and challenges faced by the Somalia Return Consortium, composed of DRC, FAO, INTERSOS, IOM, Islamic Relief, Mercy Corps, NRC, UNHCR & WFP in implementing the IDP Voluntary Return Programme in Somalia. It reflects on the complex and evolving context in Somalia and perceptions of security for displaced populations. It also analyses the extent to which returnee beneficiaries have been able to achieve durable solutions in their places of return in Somalia.
In this context of increasing internal displacement, urbanization and winter-related vulnerabilities, Welthungerhilfe (WHH) and the Danish Refugee Council (DRC) are actively providing, in the KIS, targeted assistance to enhance the livelihood potential of IDP households. During the harsh winters, WHH and DRC work with members of the KIS Task Force to coordinate emergency response and a comprehensive winterization plan. Samuel Hall was commissioned to undertake an evaluation of the 2013/2014 winter’s cash interventions through a three-phased approach including a baseline, midline and endline survey of their winter cash assistance activities in the KIS through a field- and evidence-based, quantitative and qualitative research study.
This research is the first study of alternatives to camp-based assistance in Ethiopia for Eritrean refugees, and the first thorough review of Ethiopia’s Out-of-Camp scheme (OCP). The situation of Eritrean refugees – as highlighted in the pages of this report – draws attention to two equally vulnerable groups: 1) young, single refugee males in situations of secondary movement and engaged in further irregular migration, and 2) protracted refugees with specific displacement-related vulnerabilities (women, children, elderly) who are highly – and almost exclusively – dependent on external aid. Both have low self-reliance levels and lack effective coping strategies – their only response is either to further migrate or to stay in the camps. In both situations, they are unable to secure livelihoods. They are victims of cycles of vulnerability and poverty caused by deportation, lack of networks and livelihoods, and lack of community-based support systems.
This study presents the results of IOM’s IDP Movement Tracking and Needs and Vulnerability Analysis Exercise conducted in Dec 2013 by Samuel Hall. It seeks to provide IOM – and its migration and displacement partners – with field-based evidence of issues that negatively impact both conflict and natural disaster-induced IDPs in Afghanistan. The focus of this report is on the provinces of Herat (West) and Helmand (South), pre-selected by IOM and identified in OCHA’s humanitarian overview as provinces that ranked highest on vulnerability indicators collected by clusters
For a topic that conjures vivid images in the public imagination, trafficking in persons remains largely misunderstood as the forcible movement of people. Yet, other disquieting images—the child bride given to resolve a conflict, the “dancing boy” kept as a sex slave, and the household toiling in bonded labour—are also forms of human trafficking. While these examples are drawn from the Afghan context, trafficking in persons (TIP) remains a global scourge with national and regional variations in terms of trends, prevalence, and acceptance. This report is intended to provide greater understanding of internal and cross-border TIP trends in Afghanistan by: i) clarifying concepts, ii) exploring causes and determinants of trafficking; iii) analysing trafficking patterns and trends; and iv) identifying lessons learned from applied counter-trafficking approaches.
Over 76% of Afghans have been forcibly displaced during their lifetime. In a situation of high vulnerabilities but low resilience, what is – and what can be – the response to Afghan women’s need for protection in displacement?
Evaluating UNHCR shelter programme’s contribution to reintegration outcomes for returnees and IDPs. A decade and 220,000 units built: what should be the future of the shelter strategy? Analysis based on a sample of 4,488 respondents in 15 Afghan provinces.
This series of consultation workshops with ILO and IOM was aimed at brainstorming on the content of the then upcoming National Labour Migration Policy (NLMP). Proposals and suggestions shared by stakeholders were incorporated in the NLMP.
REVISING UNHCR’S SHELTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM
What happens after a refugee crisis when the hundreds, thousands, or even millions of displaced persons return home? How do they start all over again? Humanitarian organisations have been grappling with these questions since the mid-20th century. In 2012, Samuel Hall helped UNHCR adapt its Shelter Assistance Programme to the needs and challenges of the Afghan context by conducting a comprehensive study to inform present and future programming.
Samuel Hall’s in-depth multi-sector assessment of four districts Eastern Afghanistan – high refugee return & IDP locations – to develop a strategy for community-based protection programming for ChildFund.
The aim of this study was to provide a detailed labour market assessment of displaced populations (returnees and IDPs) in select locations in urban Afghanistan to inform DRC’s future programming in and outside of Kabul. Samuel Hall researchers aimed to assist DRC in planning for its livelihoods programming by answering the following key research question: ‘What are the segments of the Afghan urban labour market with the biggest labour supply gaps and future opportunities for displaced populations?’
In a context of transition, increasing emphasis is placed on policies of return and reintegration. Central to this question is access to land. This paper published in REMMM discusses the strained relationship between refugee return, land allocation and reintegration.
DRC commissioned Samuel Hall Consulting to research the relevance and applicability of cash-based interventions in the Kabul Informal Settlements, with a focus on identifying the risks and protection issues for a cash approach, and assessing its viability for IDPs.
In this article published in Migration Studies, we examine possible post-deportation outcomes. The impossibility of repaying debts, the existence of transnational and local ties, the shame of failure, and perceptions of ‘contamination’ lead many deported Afghans to re-migrate.
The aim of this conference in Kabul with the ILO and the World Bank was focused on enhancing migration management and stimulating labour migration.
How complex is Afghan migration and what are the challenges associated with it? These questions were addressed at a workshop hosted by the Maastricht Graduate School of Governance in Brussels (8-9 April 2013) with the participation of Samuel Hall.
There are over 50 Kabul informal settlements (KIS) where returnees and IDPs live in extreme poverty. Skills upgrading can be an effective policy to strengthen local integration; vocational training can lead to increased productivity and higher income. This third study by Samuel Hall on the living conditions of IDPs contributes to the knowledge needed to mainstream protection in policy responses.