This policy brief explores the situation faced by returnees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Afghanistan, calling for a collective approach across the humanitarian-developmentpeace nexus. Displaced persons in Afghanistan face ever-worsening situations as three studies presented in this policy brief highlight: 1) Returnees and IDPs suffer from worsening displacement-related protection needs; 2) the support to mass number of recent returnees in Jalalabad remains short-term and focused on lifesaving needs; and 3) the lack of a systemic response to services and market integration all point to a lacking conducive and responsive environment for durable solutions.
This paper was commissioned by the Global Education Monitoring Report as background information to assist in drafting the 2019 GEM Report, Migration, displacement and education: Building bridges, not walls, accessible here.
In 2016, the Kalobeyei Integrated Socio-Economic Development Plan (KISEDP) was devised. Funded by the European Union, it is part of a broader regional effort called the EU Regional Development and Protection Programme (RDPP) in the Horn of Africa, led by the Netherlands, to improve protection and enhance development prospects for all – the displaced and local communities. The project is composed of inclusive education and health services, targeted protection services particularly for children, and support to foster long term food and nutrition security, and economic opportunities in and around the Kalobeyei settlement. In 2018, Samuel Hall in collaboration with the EU reviewed the project to assess whether objectives had been achieved, and where obstacles and opportunities exist to inform future iterations of the project.
This report by the African Centre for Migration & Society, University of the Witwatersrand and Samuel Hall supports the work of Open Society Foundations to promote people’s safe and unencumbered movement across international borders. The research started with a question: what factors threaten the fulfilment of migrants’ rights, and what factors support these? The research team embarked on a multi-region study analysing migration policy and practices in Central, East and Southern Africa. This report reviews findings at the East African sub-regional level, at a time of growing attention to fostering mobility and mobility’s gain for protection and development.
Within the East African Community (EAC), the report focuses on Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda. Although the fieldwork primarily focused at two sites each in two countries (Kenya and Tanzania), the synthetic report includes information and face-to-face interviews with key stakeholders from all four countries.
This report assesses the impact on children of being returned from Europe to Afghanistan. Through interviews with individual children, their parents or guardians, and with governmental and non-governmental actors, it builds a picture of children’s material, physical, legal and psychosocial safety during the returns process. Returns processes implemented by EU member states and Norway are examined to analyse where European governments are failing to provide appropriate support.
Our report ”Driven to Leave” questions the efficacy of traditional development investments that seek to deter migration from countries lacking basic rule of law and security; and questions the impact of job training and skills building on migration intentions. It is based on 12,200 surveys conducted from 2014-17 in Afghanistan and Somalia, and in-depth interviews with Somalis and Afghans at home and in Italy and Greece from 2017.
The importance of early childhood education (ECE) to a child’s life has recently been gaining in prominence worldwide, including Zanzibar. The present study assesses the relevance, eﬀectiveness, efficiency, and sustainability of the Watoto Kwanza project, designed to address some of the key challenges facing Zanzibar’s ECE sector as of 2013. With funding by Dubai Cares, the Aga Khan Foundation, the Madrassa Early Childhood Programme – Zanzibar and the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training jointly implemented the Watoto Kwanza project from 2014 to 2017 across Zanzibar’s two main islands, Unguja and Pemba. In addition to evaluating the three key project elements of Watoto Kwanza – Training and Professional Development of Teachers; Conductive and Constructive Teaching and Learning Environments; and Support Systems and Networks – the research situates these within the currently changing landscape of ECE in Zanzibar and looks ahead to the future of the project’s outcomes. Finally, it proposes recommendations based on these findings at three levels: specific to Watoto Kwanza, specific within the ECE sector, and broader sectoral recommendations.
Child marriage in Afghanistan persists at rates that suggest at least one in three young girls will be married before they turn 18. However, it is not a well-researched phenomenon in this context, and gaps in knowledge regarding prevalence, practice and drivers remain. The primary objective of this report, prepared on behalf of the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan’s Ministry for Labour, Social Affairs, Martyrs and the Disabled (MoLSAMD) in collaboration with UNICEF Afghanistan, is to provide contextualised analysis in the knowledge, attitudes and practices of communities in order to inform the development of future programming to either mitigate the impacts of child marriage or prevent further engagement in child marriage across Afghanistan.
This study seeks to provide an analysis of the current returns to Syria. The ongoing armed conflict in Syria has displaced millions of people inside and outside the country sparking an international humanitarian crisis. Since 2011, over 6 million Syrians have sought asylum outside Syria’s borders, and an additional 6.5 million people displaced internally. There is no clear picture of the number or conditions in places of return. This research contributes to filling this gap.
Returns to Syria should neither be promoted nor facilitated, as the focus must remain on investing in the preservation, and expansion, of protection space in host countries.
The Global Initiative on Out-of-School-Children led by UNICEF and UNESCO aims to understand the situation of out-of-school children in each country studied, including the barriers to education faced and gaps in current approaches to addressing them. Samuel Hall has prepared this Afghanistan Country study with the Afghanistan Ministry of Education and UNICEF in order to provide recommendations to key stakeholders on how to address this significant – the report finds that an estimated 3.7 million children aged 7-17 are out-of-school in Afghanistan – challenge.
The study focuses on assessing migrant vulnerabilities, protection needs and exposure to exploitation
before migration, during their transit and upon arrival through a qualitative research based on migrants’
experiences of irregular migration to Canada, with a focus on Afghan and Syrian migrants.
Diaspora organisations (DOs) are newly recognised actors in the humanitarian space. DOs respond to crises such as those in Syria, Somalia, and Nigeria, which have shown the limitations of the traditional humanitarian sector. Their contributions to emergency response are under-studied and, as our research shows, often misunderstood due to a gap in knowledge about their work. This report contributes to filling this gap. It sets out to understand how DOs contribute to strengthening humanitarian response in crisis settings. We explore opportunities to work with DOs in humanitarian action through six case studies of DOs operating in Somalia and Syria. Fieldwork was conducted in seven remote sites of humanitarian intervention, including in Nigeria, where DO actions are still limited. A context analysis for Nigeria provides an entry point into understanding the potential for DOs to contribute in the northeastern region.
Commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, Mercy Corps and Samuel Hall undertook data analysis in and primary data collection in Afghanistan, Somalia, Greece and Italy to understand the commonalities and differences in the decision-making process – whether to migrate or to stay – amongst youth in conflict-affected settings. This research fills identified knowledge caps on the decision-making process of youth migrants and the influence of interventions on these intentions. This research adds a comparative dimension to the understanding of mixed migration dynamics in contexts such as Afghanistan and Somalia and allows for improved support for youth in these environments.
There are more refugees and asylum seekers in East Africa than Europe combined, the majority of which are Africans fleeing conflict from neighbouring countries. Smartphones have become a vital tool for many refugees as they leave their homes in search of safety and a better life. This study explores how refugees traveling within East Africa use mobile technology and the internet to support migration, and to what extent current tech solutions meet their needs. The study takes a significant step towards deciphering the degree to which mobile phone coverage, access to smartphones, awareness of mobile-based services and technical literacy affect the role mobile technology can play in supporting refugees.
Commissioned by The Regional Durable Solutions Secretariat (ReDSS), and Conducted by Samuel Hall, this report provides recommendations on how to improve local integration and self-reliance programming. The study assessed the level of local integration in Gambela (Gambela city and Pugnido Camp) and Somali regions (Jigjiga and Kebribeyah Camp) for refugees who have lived in Ethiopia for 20 years or more by comparing their situation to the host communities, as per Pledge 6 commitment.
This report – based on research from Samuel Hall and commissioned by the Norwegian Refugee Council and the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre – follows on from a 2012 study of displacement patterns and the challenges inherent in protecting internally displaced people (IDPs) in Afghanistan. This new and updated analysis focuses on assessing the causes of prolonged and multiple displacement and seeks to present the key protection challenges still confronting displacement-affected Afghans today. Combining the voices of IDPs with analysis of primary data collected from IDPs and secondarily displaced returning refugees across Afghanistan, the study reveals major gaps in access to key humanitarian services as well as a set of persistent and entrenched vulnerabilities that blight the lives of IDPs.
The report, prepared and conducted by the Samuel Hall think tank under the IOM DFID-funded MEASURE Project, outlines recommendations to support sustainable reintegration of migrants who return to their home countries in the framework of AVRR programmes.